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Sodium Carbonate Synthesis

May 22, 2013

Introduction

Let us see about sodium carbonate synthesis. Sodium carbonate synthesis exists in several forms. All these forms have the same chemical properties. Sodium carbonate carried out in a tall tower, down which flows brine saturated with ammonia. Carbon dioxides gas is forced up the tower, which is constructed to ensure thorough mixing of gas and liquid.

Manufacture

The second reaction proceeds continually to the right since the sodium hydrogen carbonate, being almost insoluble in cold brine by the common –ion effect is precipitated and thus removed from the equilibrium. The reactions are exothermic so cooling is essential at the base synthesis of the tower. The suspended hydrogen carbonate is filtered off, washed and heated strongly.

2NaHCO3+NA2CO3+H2O+CO2

The carbon dioxide so released is used again in the tower, supplemented by a fresh supply attained by heating limestone to about 1000° C. The quicklime produced is slaked and heated with the ammonium chloride solution to recover ammonia, which is used again.

The raw materials are plentiful and cheap and calcium chloride is the only wasted product.

Properties of Sodium Carbonate

Sodium carbonate dissolves in water giving a solution which is alkaline by hydroxides from solutions of most metallic salts, and gives carbon dioxide with acids.
Anhydrous sodium carbonate melts at 850° C without undergoing appreciable decomposition.
A 50% synthesis with potassium carbonate melts at 700° C can is used in analysis, under the name of ‘fusion synthesis’, convert any insoluble salts into carbonates and oxides which can be dissolved in acids.

Uses of Sodium Carbonate

Large amounts are needed for the manufacture of glass, sodium hydroxide, borax, sodium silicate sodium phosphate and paints.
It is also used in paper-making and as a water-softner.
In the laboratory it is used to normalize acids and as a logical reagent.

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