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Periodic Table Lead

May 18, 2013

Introduction to Periodic table lead:

The elements placed in Group 13 to Group 18 in the periodic table are known as p-block elements.  The new electron enters the outermost p-orbital in the atoms of these elements.  General electronic configuration of p-block elements is [Rare gas] ns2 np1-6 .  Group 14 elements are called Carbon family.  Carbon, silicon, germanium, tin and lead are the elements present in Group 14.  While ‘Sn’ and ‘Pb’ occur in small amounts and Germanium occurs only in traces. Periodic table Lead has Atomic number 82 and mass number 207.2.  Periodic table lead is a bluish-white lustrous metal.  It allows little amount of electricity to flow through it.  It is very soft.  It is highly malleable, ductile.  Lead has the capacity to withstand corrosion.  Lead pipes were used during the olden days for passage of water by roman emperor and are still in use.  Alloys of lead are pewter and solder.  Tetra ethyl lead is still used in petrol as an anti-knocking agent but it is very harmful to environment.  The electronic configuration of periodic table lead is [Xe]4f145d106s26p2

Properties Of Periodic Table Lead

1) Atomic size of Periodic table lead: The atomic radius as well as ionic radius increases down the group from carbon to   lead with increase in atomic number.  The difference of tin and lead is small is due to filling up of 4f-orbitals of lead.

2) Ionisation potential of Periodic table lead: Carbon has the highest ionization energy because its atom is the smallest in size among them.

Where I.E. = Ionization energy.

Lead has higher I.E. than tin because the 4f-electrons shield effectively in lead.  Hence, the atomic size decreases due to effective nuclear charge on the outermost electron and I.E. increases.

3) Non-Metallic properties of Periodic table lead: C and S are Non-metals, Ge is a Metalloid,  Sn and Pb are Metals.  The non-metallic character decreases down the group from carbon to lead due to increase in the atomic size.

C > S > Ge > Sn > Pb

4) Oxidation states of Periodic table lead: Elements of group 14 exhibit oxidation states +2 and +4 when ns2 np2 electrons are involved in bonding.

Pb2+   : [Xe] 4f145d106s26p0

Pb4+   : [Xe] 4f145d106s06p0

Compounds of these elements in +2 state are ionic in character and are important in Ge, Sn, Pb.

Eg. : SnCl2, Pb(NO3)2.

Compounds in +4 state are covalent.  It is important in C and Si.

Eg. : (C2H5)4Pb, SnCl4.

5) Inert pair effect of Periodic table lead: Ge, Sn and Pb prefer to exhibit +2 state because of inert pair effect i.e., ns2 electrons remain inert and do not involve bonding.  The inert pair effect increases down the group in the order Ge < Sn < Pb.  Si, Ge, Sn and Pb are less electro negative, hence they do not exhibit negative oxidation states.

6) Melting point and Boiling point of Periodic table of Lead: Melting point depends on the size of the atom. Smaller the atomic size higher is the melting point.  C and Si have very high melting and boiling points because of giant molecular structure.

7) Catenation of Periodic table Lead: Catenation is a property of elements to form long chains of same atoms.  Carbon can form any length of carbon chain containing a large number of carbon atoms because the C-C bond energy is approximately the same magnitude as the bond energy of carbon with other elements.  Sn and Pb cannot form chain of more than 2 atoms.  Catenation decreases down the group because bond energy decreases down the group from C to Pb.  The bond between Pb-Pb as no catenation.

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