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Nomenclature Carboxylic Acid

February 11, 2013

Introduction to nomenclature carboxylic acid:

Oxygen is attached to carbon by a double bond, then it is called carbonyl group. Carbonyl compounds have mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen elements. If one hydrogen and one alkyl or aryl group is attached to carbonyl carbon the compound is an aldehyde. If two alkyl and aryl groups are attached carbonyl compound is an aldehyde. If one alkyl group and one hydroxyl group is attached to carbonyl carbon, the compound is a acrboxylic acid.

Nomenclature Carboxylic Acid:

Carbonyl compounds are clssified on the basis of hydrogen, alkyl, aryl group attached to carbonyl group.

Some important derivatives are prepared from carboxylic acids. The acyl group R-CO- is present in each of these derivatives. If hydrogen of carboxyl group of acrboxylic acid is replaced by alkyl or aryl group, easter is formed and replaced by acyl group, anhydride is formed. If hydroxyl group of carboxyl group of carboxylic acid is replaced by chlorine acid chlorine is formed and replaced  by amino group amide is formed.

Aldehydes and ketones have same general formula CnH2nO but different functional groups they are called functional group isomers. Nomenclature of carboxylic acids ior example propanal CH3CH2CHO and propanone CH3COCH3 have same molecular formula C3H6O but fuctional groups are different.

IUPAC Nomenclature of carboxylic acids:

carboxylic acids are known by their general names. In order to give IUPAC names to carboxylic acid first the longest carbon- sequence of alkane root caontaining the carboxyl group is resolute, pursue by replacing suffix –ane of alkane by suffix –anoic acid since carboxyl group is always attached at the end of the longest carbon- sequence, if necessary numbers are given from the carbon atom of carboxyl group.

Nomenclature of carboxylic acids for example removing suffix –ane from methane by suffix –anoic acid gives methanoic acid and similarly ethanoic acid. Nomenclature of carboxylic acids if carboxyl group is attached to benzene nucleus then the suffix carboxylic acid is attached to benzene example benzene carboxylic acid.

Structural formula IUPAC name Common anme B.P ° C M.P. °c
HCOOH Methanoic acid Formic acid 101 8.5
CH3COOH Ethanoic acid Acetic acid 118 16.5
CH3CH2COOH Propanoic acid Propionic acid 141 -21
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