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Carbon Family

February 6, 2013

Carbon Family (chem)

Carbon Family is element group 14 in the p-block of the periodic table and is consists of carbon (C),
Silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and flerovium (Fl). The elements in this family have
four electrons in outermost orbital or valance cell.

The element from carbon to flerovium has increasing atomic radius, since the ionization energy is
decreases from carbon to flerovium. This family consist of one non-metal element like carbon, two
metalloid elements like Silicon and germanium and two metal element like tin and lead.

So the metallic property of this group is increases as we move down from the periodic table. The
density of elements increases as we go down the family. The elements in this family have various
physical and chemical properties.

They are exist free in nature and are fairly un-reactive. They have electron configuration of ns 2 np2
and oxidation state of +4.

If you ask the question like what is Carbon? The answer would be, carbon is a first element in
carbon family. It is a non-metal element with chemical symbol of (C), atomic number of 6 and atomic
mass of 12.011.

It is the fourth abundant element in the earth crust. It is also available as graphite, diamond and coal
and in combined state like hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, CO2 in atmosphere, etc., They are exist in
many allotropic forms like crystalline and amorphous form.

It very important element from this family and special element in organic chemistry, because it is the
main constituent of all organic compounds, hence is called as basis of life. It is small in size and has
unique electronic configuration. It has a great tendency to join with another carbon atom to form a
largest carbon chain. It is non-toxic element, even though it causes lung tissue damages due to the
inhalation of fine particles.

If we see the Chemical Properties of Carbon, it tends to forms a lot of covalent compound. It has
very high melting and boiling point.

When it reacts with hydrogen to form hydrides it is found to be covalent in nature.

C + 2H2 ————> CH4

Mainly it consists of two oxides such as carbon monoxide and carbon di-oxide.

When it reacts with halides to form tetra halides and is thermally stable.

M + X2 ————-> MX4

It forms both organic acid and inorganic acids like carbonic acid. It never reacts with alkalis but other
elements from these groups are attached by these alkalis.

Carbon forms most of the compounds nearly ten million compounds for example per-carbonates,
per-monocarbonic acid, carbonyl chloride, carbon disulphide, etc.,

If we see Uses of Carbon,

It is used in the manufacturing of artificial silk.
It is used as an insecticide.
It is used as a solvent for bromine, sulfur, white phosphorus, etc.,
Diamond is used for drilling, cutting and sawing of marbles, cutting glass due to its hardness.
Graphite is used in manufacturing of pencils, dry cell batteries and electrodes.
Charcoal is used to remove tastes, toxin and odours.
Phosgene is used in dye industries and warfare.

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