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Different Organic Compounds

January 28, 2013

Organic means derived from living organisms.In chemistry it applies to a wider term and that is connected to carbon.So the chemistry of carbon is organic chemistry.

How did the meaning took twist in chemistry?

When biochemicals were first discovered,,it was believed that they are with ‘vital foce’ and as such it was believed that it is impossible to create such chemicals synthetically.Thus chemicals and chemistry related to life were termed as organic.

Introduction to different organic compounds:

Subsequently through various waves of innovations it was found that all these bio-compounds invariably contained one element,and that was ‘Carbon’. Even though later on many chemists were successful in synthetically deriving  these compounds in laboratories,the name ‘organic chemistry’ became synonymous with carbon compounds. So in relation to chemistry organic means study of carbon and its compounds.It is a very vast field.

Different Organic Compounds:

Why a separate branch has been earmarked for organic chemistry?

Carbon has valency of four.It is neither extremely electronegative or electropositive.This enables carbon to form single,double and even triple bonds with other carbon as well as atoms like hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogen,etc. Carbon therefore can easily form chains,branched chains and also saturated or unsaturated ring structures. This are the reasons why carbon is versatile and forms millions of compounds.Hence it became imperative to create a separate branch of organic chemistry to study carbon compounds.

Classification of Different Organic Compounds:

As discussed above,because of the versatality of carbon,it can form various types of compounds as under.

Different organic compounds are classified acoording to their functional groups.A few of them are discussed as under.

Alkanes            CnH2n+2

Alkenes            CnH2n

Alkynes              CnH2n-2

Alcohols           R-COH

Aldehydes        R-CHO

ketones            R-CO- R’

Carboxylic acids    R-COOH

Easters                R-COO – R’

Besides this different organic compounds are also classified  into four major types as

Lipids -They contain fattyacids

Proteins -They contain aminoacids

Carbohydrates -They contain sugar molecules

Nucleic acids -They are  DNA and RNA and  contain chains of nucleotides.


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